Table of Contents


fragment Profile on User {

Fragments are used in your requests to reduce the number of times you need to repeat a portion of the selection set, as well as a great way to isolate the needs of your components.

Using Fragments

You can use fragments in any part of your selection set, regardless of the type of the entry points. The only thing that you need to do to use a fragment is:

  1. Ensure it has a unique name within the document of the request.
  2. Has a type, and the fields selected are all present in that type.

The fragment type can be either an Object, an Interface, or a Union type.

query {
  me { ...Profile }

fragment Profile on User { picture name }

The above quite the same as:

query {
  me { picture name }

Read more about spreads.

Warning As of now, you cannot use a fragment that would be prepared more than one time by multiple spreads. In such cases, put the preparable fields inside the operation.

This one is fine:

{ users { ...UserData } }
#            ↳ Just one prepare OK
fragment UserData on User { id email addresses { id line1 } }


{ users { ...UserData } user(id: 1) { ...UserData } }
#            ↳ First prepare OK          ↳ Second prepare ERROR
fragment UserData on User { id email addresses { id line1 } }
#                                    ↳ This causes the problem

You can solve with:

  users { ...UserData addresses { ...AddressData } }
  user(id: 1) { ...UserData addresses { ...AddressData } }
fragment UserData on User { id email }
fragment AddressData on Address { id line1 }

Read more about requests.

Components and Fragments

As a recommendation, the components in your front end application should know what fields they need to be rendered correctly. You can use that to turn that information into fragments. Then, when the pages of your application perform GraphQL requests, you can simplify the queries.

// I want to show my profile and the profile of my friends
// where Profile is a separated component of my application
import Profile, { Fragment as ProfileFragment } from '@/components/profile';

const query = `
  query {
    me { ...Profile friends { ...Profile } }


The best part of this approach is that even if you need a composition of several components on a given page, and some of them require similar sets of fields, the result of your query will always add the field once. See the example:

query {
  me { id ...Profile ...PersonalCard ...Recipient }

fragment Profile on User { picture name }
fragment PersonalCard on User { id name phone email }
fragment Recipient on User { id picture name email }
  "data": {
    "me": {
      "id": "1",
      "picture": "avatar.jpg",
      "name": "John Doe",
      "phone": "+15551239876",
      "email": "[email protected]"